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Year : 2011  |  Volume : 14  |  Issue : 2  |  Page : 63-66

Spectrum of endoscopically diagnosed upper gastrointestinal diseases in Jos

1 Department of Surgery, Jos University Teaching Hospital Jos, Plateau state Nigeria, Nigeria
2 Department of Surgery, University of Maiduguri Teaching Hospital, Benue State Nigeria, Nigeria
3 Department of Medicine, Benue State University Teaching Hospital, Makurdi, Benue State Nigeria, Nigeria

Correspondence Address:
M A Misauno
Department of Surgery, Jos University Teaching Hospital, P.M.B 2076, Jos, Plateau State Nigeria
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Source of Support: None, Conflict of Interest: None

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Background: Endoscopic services are poorly developed in Nigeria and are limited mainly to diagnostic endoscopy performed in few tertiary health care centres due to lack of facilities, exorbitant cost of equipment and paucity of trained manpower. There is poor correlation between clinical and endoscopic diagnosis of gastrointestinal (GIT) diseases. Aims and Objectives: To document the pattern of GIT diseases in our practice. Design: A retrospective study of all upper gastrointestinal endoscopy reports as entered in the surgical endoscopy register from September 1999 to August 2010. Setting: This study was carried out at the surgery department of the Jos University Teaching Hospital. Materials and Methods: It was a review of all consecutive upper gastrointestinal endoscopy data as entered in the surgical endoscopy register over an 11 year period from September 1999 to August 2010. The patients' biodata, indications for and findings at endoscopy were reviewed. Results: A total of 989 upper gastrointestinal endoscopies were performed. The mean age was 44.5 +/-13.1yrs with a male to female M: F ratio of 3:2. Two hundred and sixty one patients (30.4%) had Non-ulcer dyspepsia, 213 (21.5%) gastritis, 88 (8.9%) duodenitis, 29 (2.9%) oesophagitis and 23 (2.3%) oesophageal candidiasis. Duodenal ulcer was seen in 93 (9.4%), gastric ulcer in 40 (4.0%), combined gastric and duodenal ulcers in 16 (1.6%) and oesophageal ulcer in 1 (0.1%). Seventy-three (7.4%) had oesophageal varices, 67(6.8%) had hiatus hernia and 8(0.8%) had achalasia of the oesophagus. Sixty-six (6.7%) had malignant gastric tumours, 42 (4.2%) oesophageal carcinoma and one had duodenal adenocarcinoma (0.1%). Three patients had oesophageal stricture (0.3%) while one had oesophageal foreign body (0.1 %). Conclusion: It can be concluded that a myriad of pathologies can be seen at upper gastrointestinal endoscopy ranging from non-ulcer dyspepsia, gastritis, peptic ulcer disease, and oesophageal varices to GIT malignancies, candidiasis, oesophageal strictures and hiatus hernia. That most of these pathologies manifest as dyspepsia, meaning that they are more likely to be misdiagnosed and only upper GIT endoscopy can reliably distinguish them.

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