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Year : 2014  |  Volume : 17  |  Issue : 2  |  Page : 65-70

Vernal keratoconjunctivitis in Jos, North-Central Nigeria: A hospital-based study

Department of Ophthalmology, Benue State University Teaching Hospital, Makurdi, Benue State, Nigeria

Correspondence Address:
Keziah N. Malu
Department of Ophthalmology, Benue State University Teaching Hospital, Makurdi 102131, Benue State
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Source of Support: None, Conflict of Interest: None

DOI: 10.4103/1118-8561.134486

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Background: Vernal keratoconjunctivitis (VKC) is a chronic, seasonally recurrent bilateral external ocular allergic inflammatory condition in response to allergens. It is more prevalent in the warm and dry tropical and subtropical climates of Africa, Middle East, Latin America, Asia (Indian Sub-Continent). VKC is a self-limiting disorder with spontaneous resolution after puberty or early adult life with male preponderance. The purpose of the study is to determine the prevalence and clinical presentation of VKC in a hospital clinic in Jos, Plateau State, North-Central Nigeria. Materials and Methods: This is a retrospective hospital-based study of patients seen with clinical diagnosis of VKC from 2000 to 2009 at Adoose Specialist Hospital, Jos, Nigeria. Results: The mean age of presentation was 14.6 ± 12.0 years while 62.8% were 16 years or younger, and 55% were male. Most of the patients had hyperpigmentation of the conjunctiva. The prevalence of the limbal (46.5%) and mixed (45.7%) subtypes of VKC were almost equal. The most frequently associated ocular conditions were refractive error (6.7%) and eye lid disorders (3.3%). Keratopathy was present in 2.2% patients with one case of keratoconus. Systemic allergic associations were rare. Conclusion: Clinical presentation of VKC in these patients is similar to those in other African countries and systemic associations were rare.

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