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Year : 2019  |  Volume : 22  |  Issue : 1  |  Page : 28-32

Clinico-microbial profile of diabetic foot infections in Zaria, North-West Nigeria

1 Department of Orthopedics and Trauma Surgery, Ahmadu Bello University Teaching Hospital, Zaria, Nigeria
2 Department of Medicine, Ahmadu Bello University Teaching Hospital, Zaria, Nigeria
3 Department of Medical Microbiology, Ahmadu Bello University Teaching Hospital, Zaria, Nigeria
4 Department of Surgery, Ahmadu Bello University Teaching Hospital, Zaria, Nigeria

Correspondence Address:
Dr. Kenneth Ezenwa Amaefule
Department of Orthopedics and Trauma Surgery, Ahmadu Bello University Teaching Hospital, Zaria
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Source of Support: None, Conflict of Interest: None

DOI: 10.4103/smj.smj_44_17

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Background: Diabetic foot infection (DFI) is a dreaded complication of diabetes mellitus, which usually occurs following foot ulceration. It may starts as a monomicrobial infection and end up as a polymicrobial infection. Antimicrobial regimens are usually selected empirically initially, based on local epidemiological and antimicrobial susceptibility pattern. Objective: The aim is to investigate the microbiological profile of patients admitted with DFIs in our institution and determine the antimicrobial susceptibility pattern of the isolates. Materials and Methods: A 2-year retrospective observational study of patients admitted with DFI into our institution. The microbiological culture and antimicrobial susceptibility results of swab specimens from the patients were retrieved and reviewed. These were correlated with the clinical stage of the disease. Results: Fifty-six patients' medical records were reviewed. There were 35 males and 21 females. The mean age of the patients was 56.2 years (range 48–75 years). Three patients had bilateral lesions. The Wagner grades of the lesions were Grades II–V, with Grade IV being predominant. Eight bacteria species and a fungus were isolated from the 59 swab specimens studied. Four specimens yielded no growth, whereas 7 specimens yielded contaminants. Monomicrobial cultures were predominant, with Gram-negative bacteria being preponderant. Staphylococcus aureus was the most common isolate, followed by Proteus species. The isolates showed greater susceptibility to levofloxacin and ciprofloxacin. Conclusion: The findings suggest that either levofloxacin or ciprofloxacin should be the anchor antimicrobial agent in empirical treatment of DFI in our locality.

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