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   2015| January-March  | Volume 18 | Issue 5  
    Online since January 19, 2015

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Socio-demographic and Anthropometric risk factors for Type 2 diabetes in Maiduguri, North-Eastern Nigeria
ID Gezawa, FH Puepet, BM Mubi, AE Uloko, B Bakki, MA Talle, I Haliru
January-March 2015, 18(5):1-7
Background: The prevalence of type 2 diabetes (T2DM) is on the increase in developing countries due to urbanization, ageing population, physical inactivity and the high prevalence of obesity. Identifying the risk factors for T2DM is a necessary step in the planning of preventive measures to reduce the burden of the disease. The aim of this study was to determine the socio-demographic and anthropometric risk factors for type 2 diabetes in Maiduguri, northeastern Nigeria. Methods: We randomly selected 242 subjects resident in the study location. Trained interviewers obtained socio-demographic data from each respondent using a pretested questionnaire. Physical measurements for anthropometric indices were carried out using standard methods. Fasting blood samples were collected for the determination of fasting plasma glucose and diagnosis of diabetes. Data were analyzed using SPSS version 16 for windows and a P < 0.05 was considered significant. Results: All the 242 subjects recruited for the study responded. The mean (SD) age of 96 (39.7%) males and 146 (60.3%) females was 40.0 (14.6) years and 41.5 (12.0) years respectively, P > 0.05.The crude prevalence of diabetes was 17 (7.0%). The prevalence was 10(10.4%) in males and 7(4.8%) in females (M: F = 2.1:1), P < 0.05. The independent risk factors for diabetes identified were increasing age (OR = 3.72, 95% CI = 0.83-16.7, P = 0.007) and waist circumference in both males (OR = 1.65, 95% CI = 0.75-3.63, P = 0.036). and females (OR = 1.63, 95% CI = 0.56-4.78, P = 0.025). Conclusion: We identified increasing age and waist circumference to be the independent risk factors for T2DM in Maiduguri, Northeastern Nigeria.
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Prevalence of malnutrition in chronic kidney disease: A study of patients in a tertiary Hospital in Nigeria
HM Liman, EA Anteyi, E Oviasu
January-March 2015, 18(5):8-11
Background: The nutritional status of patients with chronic kidney disease is an important determinant of the morbidity and mortality associated with the disease. Materials and Methods: We studied the baseline nutritional status of 62 patients with chronic kidney disease using several parameters. Nutritional status was assessed using Subjective global assessment (SGA), weight change over six months of follow up, body mass index (BMI), triceps skin fold thickness (TSF), mid upper arm circumference (MUAC) and serum albumin. Data obtained was analyzed using EPIINFO version 6.04. Nutritional status of patients on haemodialysis was compared with those who are yet to commence haemodialysis. Results: Malnutrition was observed in 54.8% of the patients studied based on SGA criteria, 41.9% based on weight loss over six months, 48.4% based on MUAC, 17.7% based on BMI, 85.5% based on TSF, 24.2% based on serum albumin and 69.4% based on two or more criteria. The prevalence of malnutrition in patients who have commenced haemodialysis was significantly higher when assessed using weight change over 6 months. The incidence of malnutrition in our patients with chronic kidney disease is high, especially in patients on haemodialysis. Conclusions: Efforts at detecting early malnutrition, as well as correcting factors associated with it are recommended.
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Choriocarcinoma with cerebral metastasis presenting as a stroke-like lesion
C Nnadi Daniel, IG Ango, EI Nwobodo
January-March 2015, 18(5):16-19
Choriocarcinoma is a very aggressive malignant variant of gestational trophoblastic disease characterized by malignant proliferation of trophoblastic tissues and absence of chorionic villi. We present a rare case of metastatic choriocarcinoma presenting with a stroke-like lesion. A 40-year old multiparous woman that presented with bleeding per vaginam, right-sided facial nerve palsy and hemiparesis following eight weeks of amenorrhea. Serum β-hCG was elevated and urine pregnancy test was positive in neat and in serial dilution. She was managed as a case of metastatic choriocarcinoma and had five courses of the EMA-CO drug regimen. She made rapid neurological recovery and was discharged in good condition. We conclude that metastatic choriocarcinoma may present in bizarre forms. It should be suspected in any woman presenting with abnormal vaginal bleeding, unusual systemic physical features and raised serum β-hCG. We conclude that combination chemotherapy is usually effective even in metastatic choriocarcinoma.
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Morphological patterns of primary skin Sarcoma in Benin-City, Nigeria
Gerald Dafe Forae, Adesuwa Noma Olu-Eddo
January-March 2015, 18(5):12-15
Background: The purpose of this study is to determine the frequency and morphological patterns of primary skin sarcoma in University of Benin Teaching Hospital (UBTH), Benin City, Nigeria. Materials and Methods: Data of skin surgical received at the Department of Histopathology, over a 25 year period (1982-2007) were reviewed. Information derived from surgical day books includes socio-demographic data on age, sex, hospital numbers, clinical features and diagnosis. Corresponding slides and blocks retrieved were examined histological. Results: During the 25-year period of this study, 187 cases were malignant skin lesions. Of these, 64 constituting 34.2% were primary skin sarcomas. Kaposi sarcoma (KS) accounted for (n = 57; 30.5% and n = 57; 89.1%) of malignant skin tumours and primary skin sarcoma, respectively. Dermatofibrosarcoma protuberans (DFSP) accounted for (n = 7; 3.7% and n = 7; 10.9%) of all skin malignancy and primary skin sarcomas respectively. The peak incidence of KS and DFSP was in the 4 th and 3 rd decades respectively. The mean age for KS and DFSP was 47.5 ± 1.7 and 35.9 ± 5.9 respectively. The age range for KS and DFSP was 17-78 and 25-65 years respectively. KS and DFSP accounted for male to female ratio of 1.3:1. Of the 28 cases with recorded site distribution, 14 cases (50%) occurred in the leg and foot region. Of these 6 cases of DFSP with recorded site distributions, 4 cases (66.7%) occurred in the trunk. Conclusion: The burden of primary skin sarcoma particularly AIDS associated Kaposi sarcoma in developing countries is worrisome. In view of this, it is important that more awareness and effective HIV/AIDS screening be instituted to reduce the morbidity and mortality of this menace. So that at no distance time, there would be a drastic reduction of skin sarcoma in our society.
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